When building applications that handle user accounts, a lot of functionality depends on storing session variables for users, consider a typical checkout cart: it's quite often that an abandoned cart on any e-commerce website will retain its contents long after a user abandons it. Carts sometimes even have their contents persist across devices! To build such functionality, we cannot rely on Flask's default method of storing session variables, which happens via locally stored browser cookies. Instead, we can use a cloud key/value store such as Redis, and leverage a plugin called Flask-Session.

Flask-Session is a Flask plugin that enables the simple integration of a server-side cache leveraging methods such as Redis, Memcached, MongoDB, relational databases, and so forth. Of these choices, Redis is an exceptionally appealing option.

Redis is a NoSQL datastore written in C intended to temporarily hold data in memory for users as they blaze mindlessly through your site. Redis was designed for this very purpose, is extremely quick, and is free to use when spinning up a free instance on Redis Labs.

Becoming Familiar with Flask-Session

To understand Flask-Session's offering, a good place to start is by peaking at the settings that Flask-Session accepts:


Specifies which type of session interface to use. Built-in session types:

  • null: NullSessionInterface (default)
  • redis: RedisSessionInterface
  • memcached: MemcachedSessionInterface
  • filesystem: FileSystemSessionInterface
  • mongodb: MongoDBSessionInterface
  • sqlalchemy: SqlAlchemySessionInterface
SESSION_PERMANENT Whether to use a permanent session (default: True)
SESSION_USE_SIGNER Whether to sign the session cookie sid or not, if set to True, you have to set flask.Flask.secret_key. (default: False)
SESSION_KEY_PREFIX A prefix that is added before all session keys. This makes it possible to use the same backend storage server for different apps. (default: “session:”)
SESSION_REDIS An open Redis session to store session data in.
SESSION_MEMCACHED A memcache.Client instance, default connect to
SESSION_FILE_DIR The directory where session files are stored. Default to use flask_session directory under current working directory.
The maximum number of items the session stores before it starts deleting some, default 500
SESSION_FILE_MODE The file mode wanted for the session files, default 0600
SESSION_MONGODB A pymongo.MongoClient instance, default connect to
SESSION_MONGODB_DB The MongoDB database you want to use, default “flask_session”
SESSION_MONGODB_COLLECT The MongoDB collection you want to use, default “sessions”
SESSION_SQLALCHEMY A flask.ext.sqlalchemy.SQLAlchemy instance whose database connection URI is configured using the SQLALCHEMY_DATABASE_URI parameter
SESSION_SQLALCHEMY_TABLE The name of the SQL table you want to use, default “sessions”

Even at first glance, it's pretty easy to understand what our options are.


To get started, we need to install 2 libraries: Flask-Session and Redis (along with Flask, obviously):

$ pip3 install flask flask-session redis
Install dependencies


Next, we need to configure our app. In our config.py file, we need to import the Redis library with import redis (we'll get to that in a minute). Next, we need to set the following variables in config.py:

  • SECRET_KEY: Flask-Session won't work without a secret key; it's important to set this to a random string of characters (as always, make sure this is secure).
  • SESSION_TYPE: Will be set to SESSION_TYPE=redis for our purposes.
  • SESSION_REDIS: The URI of our cloud-hosted Redis instance. Redis URIs are structured a bit uniquely: redis://:[password]@[host_url]:[port].

The full configuration of a Redis instance using a URI looks like this:

SESSION_REDIS = redis.from_url(environ.get('SESSION_REDIS'))
Configuring Redis sessions for Flask

If you're having trouble with your config, feel free to borrow mine (this pulls values from .env):

"""App configuration."""
from os import environ, path, system

import redis
from dotenv import load_dotenv

basedir = path.abspath(path.dirname(__file__))
load_dotenv(path.join(basedir, ".env"))

class Config:
    """Set Flask configuration vars from .env file."""

    # General Config
    FLASK_APP = environ.get("FLASK_APP")
    FLASK_DEBUG = environ.get("FLASK_DEBUG")
    SECRET_KEY = environ.get("SECRET_KEY")

    # Flask-Session
    REDIS_URI = environ.get("REDIS_URI")
    SESSION_TYPE = "redis"
    SESSION_REDIS = redis.from_url(REDIS_URI)

Initializing a Flask-Session Application

We know much about the Flask application factory and how to initialize other Flask plugins such as Flask-SQLAlchemy and Flask-Login. Flask-Session is initialized in the same way: we set a global variable first and then initialize the plugin with session.init_app(app). This is an example of an __init__.py file initializing Flask-Session, Flask-SQLAlchemy, and Flask-Login (this builds on the source code we used to implement Flask-Login):

"""Initialize app."""
from flask import Flask
from flask_login import LoginManager
from flask_session import Session
from flask_sqlalchemy import SQLAlchemy

db = SQLAlchemy()
login_manager = LoginManager()
session = Session()

def create_app():
    """Construct the core flask_session_tutorial."""
    app = Flask(__name__, instance_relative_config=False)

    # Initialize Plugins

    with app.app_context():
        from . import auth, routes
        from .assets import compile_auth_assets, compile_static_assets


        # Create static asset bundles

        # Create Database Models

        return app

With Flask-Session initialized as session, we're ready to see how this works!

Let's Mess With Some Variables

The cool thing about Flask-Session is that it extends Flask native session object. Once we've configured our Flask app to use Flask-Session (as we already have), we can work with Flask session variables in the same way we would have if we were still using cookies. To get started, we import session from flask via from flask import session.

Let's review the basics of managing values in a Flask session.

Setting a Value

Setting a variable on a session looks a lot like setting values for any old Python dictionary object:

session['key'] = 'value'
Set a value for the current session

Retrieving a Value

With a value saved to our session, we can retrieve and reuse it with .get():

session_var_value = session.get('key')
Retrieve a value from the current session by name

Removing a Value

If the value we've saved has been used and is no longer needed, we can remove variables from our session using .pop():

session.pop('key', None)
Retrieve and remove a session value

Demonstrating Sessions

To see sessions working in action, we'll create a couple of routes that create and display values saved to a session. First, we'll set a session variable in the route for our application's homepage. Next, we'll create a route for the specific purpose of displaying this variable:

"""Routes for logged-in flask_session_tutorial."""
from flask import Blueprint
from flask import current_app as app
from flask import redirect, render_template, session, url_for
from flask_login import current_user, login_required, logout_user

from .assets import compile_auth_assets

# Blueprint Configuration
main = Blueprint("main", __name__, template_folder="templates", static_folder="static")

@main.route("/", methods=["GET"])
def dashboard():
    """Logged in Dashboard screen."""
    session["redis_test"] = "This is a session variable."
    return render_template(
        title="Flask-Session Tutorial.",
        body="You are now logged in!",

@main.route("/session", methods=["GET"])
def session_view():
    """Display session variable value."""
    return render_template(
        title="Flask-Session Tutorial.",

def logout():
    """User log-out logic."""
    return redirect(url_for("auth.login"))

At first glance, it doesn't seem like anything has happened on our app's home page:

The logged-in homepage of our Flask app
The logged-in homepage of our Flask app

Behind the scenes, we've set a session variable named redis_test. Navigate to and you'll be greeted with the following:

Displaying a Flask session variable's value
Displaying a Flask session variable's value

Not only did we create a value that can persist across views, but since we've stored this value in a cloud Redis instance, it should persist across devices as well. I connected to my Redis instance using a GUI, and this is what came back:

Redis database table with stored records.
A view of what's in our Redis instance

Ahh, the keys and the values we stored are encrypted! This is why it was so important to set our secret key earlier. Nevertheless, we can see our session variables are successfully decoupled. Instead of depending on the user's browser or our app's local server, user session variables are nice and comfy in the cloud.

Get Your Hands Dirty

The best way of learning is by doing, of course. For anybody interested, I've uploaded the source code for this tutorial to Github here:

:floppy_disk: :bow: Example Flask project for implementing Flask-Session with Redis. - hackersandslackers/flask-session-tutorial

This has been another episode of Building Flask Apps! Join us next time when we... well, I'm not sure yet. Join us anyway! Peace fam.