We started last week strong with a foray into Golang, where we created a simple web app serving a "Hello world" route. For those of you who were enticed by this deviation from our regular programming, the next logical question you might have could be how to make this knowledge "useful" by making it accessible to other human beings.
We're going to build on our Golang momentum from last week to do just that: deploy a web application written in Go to a Linux host such as Ubuntu. We will cover everything from installing Go, creating a
systemctl service, and configuring Nginx. All you need is a VPS.
If you haven't done so, ensure your VPS has Nginx installed:
Installing Go on Linux
We're going to install Go via source. Pick the version of Go that suits your Linux distro's needs from the Go downloads page. We'll download this to our /tmp folder, build the source, and move the built source to where it belongs:
We've just unpacked the Go language and moved it to where Linux typically likes to keep its programming languages. This path is what Go refers to as the GOROOT, and its contents should look like this:
Add GOPATH and GOROOT to your Shell Script
We've installed and unpacked Go, but we haven't given our OS a way to recognize that we've done so just yet. We can accomplish this by modifying our shell script, which is typically called .profile:
Here we'll add our GOROOT and GOPATH file paths. If you'll recall, GOROOT is where our OS looks for the Go programming language, and GOPATH is the working directory where we keep all Go projects and dependencies. I've chosen to set my GOPATH to /go, which is a directory we have yet to create:
Save your changes and activate the shell script:
We can now verify that everything's been installed:
Setting up our GOPATH & Project
We have to create our GOPATH manually, which is as simple as creating the following directories:
$ mkdir ~/go $ mkdir ~/go/bin $ mkdir ~/go/pkg $ mkdir ~/go/src
Now we have a place to keep our Go projects! I'm going to pull down the "Hello world" project we created last week for convenience's sake:
I've chosen to clone the Github repo into my /src path as well, which leaves the structure of my GOPATH looking like this:
Create an Nginx Config
You may have done this a few times before, but whatever. We'll set up an Ngnix reverse proxy to listen on the port our app will be running on, which happens to be port 9100 in our case. Of course, we need to make sure this port is enabled first:
Create a configuration file in the Nginx /sites-available folder:
We're going to drop the standard boilerplate for a reverse proxy here. The domain I happen to be using for this app is golanghelloworld.hackersandslackers.com. Replace this with the domain of your choice:
We activate this configuration by creating a symlink from our file in sites-available to sites-enabled:
Finally, these changes are applied upon Nginx restart. If the below produces no output, you're in the clear:
SSL With Certbot
Adding SSL is arguably out of scope for what the point of this tutorial is, but whatever. Certbot makes adding SSL easy enough that we can blow through it in less than a minute.
Before we can install Certbot, we need to add the proper repositories:
Now we can install Certbot for real:
The Certbot CLI can accept an
--nginx flag, which scans the configurations we've set up on our machine:
This will list every Nginx configuration you have on your machine and prompt you for which app you'd like to set up with SSL. My Ubuntu machine happens to host a bunch of sites. Feel free to check out any of them if you please 🙂:
The configuration I'm looking for is #18. Selecting this will then prompt whether or not we'd like to redirect HTTP traffic to HTTPS, which you should do (is there even a reason not to do this? Let me know in the COMMENTS BELOW and remember to smash that LIKE button).
Select option 2.
Check out how Certbot has modified our original golang-helloworld.conf Nginx config:
That's what we like to see.
Create a Systemctl Service
If you've never messed around with Systemctl services before, a "service" is something we want to run continuously on our server (for example, Nginx is a service in itself). We're going to create a service for our Go app to make sure our app is always running, even if our server is restarted:
The syntax for Linux services follows the .ini file format. There's a lot here which we'll dissect in a moment:
Here are the notable values being set above:
Group: Probably not the best idea in the world, but this tells our service to run our app as the Ubuntu root user. Feel free to change this to a different Linux user.
WorkingDirectory: The working directory that we'll be serving our app from.
ExecStart: The compiled binary file of our Go project.
RestartSec: These values are exceptionally useful for ensuring that our app is always up and available, even after crashing from unforeseen circumstances. These two values tell our service to check if our app runs every 10 seconds. If the app happens to be down, our service will restart the app, hence the on-failure value for Restart.
ExecStartPre: Each of these lines contains a command to run before starting our app. We set three such commands: the first two ensure that our app logs correctly to a directory called /var/log/golang-helloworld. The third (and more important) command sets permissions on our Go binary file.
Save your service file. Below we register the changes we've made to our system's services, start our new service, and enable our service to be run upon system startup:
Let's check to see how things went:
If you happen to be very lucky, you'll see a SUCCESS output like the following:
Debugging Systemctl Services
The unfortunate truth about creating Linux services is that there are many moving parts at play; I don't think I've ever gotten a new service to work on the first attempt without some error. These errors range from permission errors to incorrect file paths, or port clashing. The good news is that each problem is individually simple to fix.
Your first line of defense against debugging services is
journalctl to check the log output of any service:
An indispensable tool for debugging issues is the ability to
grep for processes to see if they're running properly. We can search active processes by name or by port. If
journalctl outputs an error that port 9100 is in use, you can find that process via the below:
We can kill whichever process comes back with
kill -9 [PID].
Alternatively, we can check if our app is running by grepping by process name:
If needed, we could kill the process with
pkill -9 golang-helloworld.
If you need to make changes to your .service file, remember to run
systemctl daemon-reload to pick up the changes, and
service golanghelloworld restart to give it another go.
Get Out There
I believe you'll work out the kinks and successfully get your Go app up and running. It took me a bit, but my shitty hello world is up and living in all its glory here:
If you run into issues that you can't seem to solve, feel free to reach out. We'll work it out together.